web metrics



The firmament

It stands to reason that the firmament should dictate the physical properties of the universe. Indeed, this is the case. The firmament dictates how the physical universe behaves. It does so by determining the values assumed by the fundamental constants which control physical reactions and phenomena. Since we can measure these fundamental constants, we can derive the very properties of the firmament. The derivation of these properties is not new, although the explanation given here is new.note 4

The density of the firmament relates to several fundamental physical constants. For our purposes it will suffice to write down the density of the firmament, D, in terms of these physical constants:

D = SQRT( h c / G)/L^3


L = SQRT(h G / c^3)

In these equations h is 1.054573 x 10-27 erg-sec (Planck's constant), c is the speed of light, and G is the gravitational constant. L is the Planck length (1.62 x 10-33 cm) which is the size of the grains which make up the firmament (heretofore called Planck particles). Finally, D, the Planck density, is 3.6 x 1093 gm/cm3.

For several decades the Planck particles have been regarded as nothing more than fluctuations in a vacuum caused by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. These particles were believed to pop into existence, exist for about 5.39 x 10-44 seconds, and then vanish back out of existence only to pop up again a brief instant later. Because of this, some have looked to this medium as an explanation of the origin of the big-bang, assuming that the latter started at that density. Furthermore, there is nothing vacuous about the firmament, and so it is more reasonable to conclude that it is a pervasive medium which, on nuclear scales, the universe can only suspect but of whose existence it can never be certain. This, then, is the firmament. This is also the view of Roger Penrose.

Notes and References

Note 4 J. A. Wheeler and C.M. Patton, 1977. "Is Physics Legislated by Cosmogony?" in R. Duncan and M. Weston-Smith, eds., The Encyclopedia of Ignorance. (Elmsford: Pergamon Press), pp. 19-35.

Next section: Superstrings and massive superstrings
Back to previous section: A created plenum
Back to the Table of Contents

The Biblical Astronomer

4527 Wetzel Avenue

Cleveland, Ohio 44109

Last modified on 19 July, 2000 / GDB