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We have shown that Planck particles, which are also known as maximons or massive superstrings, are not fluctuations in a vacuum state resulting from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, but rather are constituents of a superdense medium, the firmament, in which the entire universe is embedded and which dictates the properties of space and time. The firmament's density is 3.6x1093 gm/cm3. Each Planck particle has a mass of 2.18x10-5 grams, a size of 1.6x10-33 cm, and the firmament has a tempertature of 1.4x1032 K.

In order for the universe to exist and have motion within the firmament, the firmament must be indistiguishable from a true plenum. That means that the firmament is only sensed by objects and events operating at the scale of a Planck length (1.6x10-33 cm). Yet despite its immense density, atoms can freely move through the firmament. This can only be accomplished if experimental measurements of position, time, energy and momentum are indeterminate. This is indeed the case and is commonly called the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. All events in the universe are constrained to sufficient uncertainty or inaccuracy to assure that the firmament's finiteness is not detected by the nuclear universe. Since in particular, this allows for motion within the firmament, the uncertainty principle also adds the plenum-constraint that motion can only take place in curved paths, so that only straight-line motion is prohibited. This follows because the uncertainty principle is manifested by the loss of sense (knowledge of direction and momentum) of a particle.

Mention was made earlier that the firmament model solves the question of what happens to black holes, whether or not they ever stop collapsing. The model predicts that when the black hole reaches the Planck density, that then it will locally be absorbed into the firmament. It remains to be seen whether or not it will retain any memory of its previous state, but first indications are negative.

Because the material density of the universe is a perturbation imposed on the firmament, in order that the universe be allowed to exist, the firmament, with the universe embedded in it, rotates with a period of one day. The sun, moon and stars participate in the rotation with no awareness of doing so. In part this unawareness satisfies the Uncertainty Principle. So it is that modern physics has concluded that a Machian (geocentric) framework can be discounted if the universe is assumed to be the smallest isolated system.note 8 Given the evidence here adduced for a firmament, and given its indication of a God who created it and the universe contained within it, and given that said God must be able to transcend his creation, one can no longer assume such.

The firmament model presented here is still in its infancy. For many there is a frighteningly geocentric overtone in the rotation period. Insofar as that goes there is a question about whether or not the yearly solar motion could similarly be taken into account. There is a hint in twistor theory that it can. Once that is done, then we will have a formulation for the strong Mach's principle, a formulation which so far has eluded physics. Mach understood full well that the geometry or coordinate system chosen for a theory should be irrelevant to the physics described. Modern physics has not yet incorporated that principle into its formulation, but preliminary results promise a very rich reward once Mach's principle is incorporated.note 9


Note 8 P. F. Browne, 1977. "Relativity of Rotation," Jrnl. of Phys. A: Math & Gen., 10:727.

Note 9 For example, see Barbour and Bertotti, 1977. "Gravity and Inertia in a Machian Framework," Il Nuovo Cimento B, 38:1.

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