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Gerardus D. Bouw, Ph.D.


In the “Panorama” of Biblical Astronomer No. 82, p. 27, we reported a steady increase in the average height of waves in the North Atlantic.1 Observations from the Seven Stone Light ship, anchored in the northeastern Atlantic, show that wave heights have increased an inch (2.4 cm.) per year from 1960 through 1985. The light station's records are confirmed by analysis of over 20,000 wave charts of the North Atlantic drawn between 1960 and 1988. The authors of the paper conclude with:

It should be noted that so far it has not been possible to attribute the observed change to either an anthropogenic [man-made, —ed.] cause or to natural climate variability on decadal scales.

The article reminded me of a verse of Scripture, referring to the end times, namely Luke 21:25 — “And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring.”

Waves in the Bible

From a geocentric, Biblical perspective we are able to identify the cause of the behavior of these waves in the North Atlantic as well as other waves such as El Nin~o. The behavior of the waves has a Biblical application as seen in the above quote of Luke 21:25. Other scriptures relate the roaring waves with increasing unrighteousness, with judgment, pride, and death. (See 2 Samuel 22:5;2 Job 38:11;3 Psalms 88:7;4 93:3; 107:21-31; Isaiah 48:18;5 Jeremiah 51:42, 55;6 Jonah 2:3; Zechariah 10:11;7 and Jude 138.) From these and more passages it is clear the powers of heaven dictate the behavior of waves. The powers of heaven are two-fold, spiritual and physical, involving righteousness and gravity respectively.

Now righteousness and gravity are related in a subtle way. The amount of order in both gravity and righteousness is high, which means that the amount of disorder (technically called entropy) is low, if not zero. This, in turn, means that spiritual and physical power can be extracted respectively from righteousness and gravity with close to 100% efficiency. In physical terms, this means that we can generate electrical power from falling water (gravity) with nearly 100% efficiency. In spiritual terms, we can generate economic and political power with nearly 100% efficiency from righteousness, that is, by dealing righteously with customers, competitors, and suppliers alike.

Truth is a critical component of order, for without it the binding force of order is dissolved and entropy (disorder) is increased. Jesus Christ is himself the truth (John 14:6), and so upholds all things by the word of his power (Hebrews 1:3). During the last 150 years the number of lies introduced into the world has increased, but more disturbingly, the number of people who believe the lies has increased exponentially. Among these lies are evolution, which is uniformitarianism (alluded to in 2 Peter 3:4, also see page 9 of this issue), the popular acceptance of the myth that only the non-existent “original autographs” constitute the inspired word of God,9 the belief that the salvation of man lies only in education, the myths of global warming and global cooling, the ozone hole myths, the blasphemies that sodomy is not sin and that adultery is perfectly acceptable, yea, even to be expected from handsome powerful men such as President Clinton; and the deceitful promises of communism and socialism which prey on men's laziness and greed. Each of these fables adds to the disorder in the world10 and so adds to the amount of entropy in the world, and by extension, in the earth's system. Add to those lies the creation of fiat money by central banks such as America's Federal Reserve System of the International Monetary Fund, in which “money” is created out of nothing and then backed by United States citizens' private property, and add the unending series of wars which have been waged by the United Nations since its founding, the entropy, the disorder and death in the world has increased dramatically in the last century. All this added entropy only leads to death.

So after reading about the increasing wave heights, I was left with the question, “Did God, in his infinite wisdom, create the universe in such a way that the consequences of sin would follow as surely as the consequences of jumping off the edge of a cliff?” Could an increase of sin and death change the strength of the earth's gravitational field? If so, such a change would effect wave heights in the oceans, and also could also cause changes in the frequency and violence of earthquakes as the downward force which keeps stressful rocks in place changes.

What This Study Is Not

Whenever I've undertaken a study which looks at the dependencies of the creation on the power of God, there are those who think it heresy. This they do even though the Bible teaches that such a dependency exists (Rom. 1:20; Heb. 1:3; etc.). In anticipation for that misunderstanding I'm taking the time to write what this study is not.

This is not a method or proposal to measure spiritual entities. This is simply an exploration in cause and effect. We know that sin causes degeneration of an individual's body and soul; we also know that sin causes destruction of entire nations. Death is a physical thing and is the result of sin. “The wages of sin is death,” says Rom. 6:23, which continues: “but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Death also applies to the soul, as we see in Ezek. 18:4 and 20 which say ”The soul that sinneth, it shall die.” Nowhere does the Bible say that the spirit dies, just the body and the soul die. Those who speak of a “spiritual death” know nothing of these matters (Prov. 20:27; Eccl. 3:21). Is the Spirit of God subject to death, too? If God is a Spirit (John 4:24), and if the spirit is subject to death, then God, as Spirit, would be subject to death. (Those who think that soul and spirit are the same, see Heb. 4:12.)

The intent of this study is to explore whether or not God has built into his creation a mechanism whereby sin is punished or opposed without the necessity for divine intervention. In what follows we have to make use of equations, since that is how entropy defined and handled. The text can be read without having to understand the equations. The following text resulted from a discussion among some of the world's leading geocentrists. Reference is made to work I did twenty years ago. Lord willing, I shall publish it in a future issue. One final thing about entropy. The word may be strange to many readers of this issue, but the concepts are well known. The increase of entropy is commonly known as the second law of thermodynamics. It is also called “Murphy's Law.”

Introduction to Entropy

The original definition of entropy came from the study of heat and was written as:


where DS is the change in entropy, DQ is the change in heat, and T is the temperature. In plain English this says that entropy is the amount of heat energy in one degree of temperature. When it comes to gasses, the amount of heat is related to energy through a fundamental unit of entropy called Boltzmann's constant, k, so that heat and energy are essentially the same. Particularly, the average energy of an atom or molecule of gas at temperature T is (3/2)kT. This means that, assuming three degrees of freedom11 for water and air molecules, DQ = (3/2)DE, or, rewriting the definition of entropy,

DS = (3/2)DE/T.

Although this formula works well for gasses and liquids, it is not truly appropriate for information or truth where the “degrees of freedom” concept does not apply. For this we have to use the concept of states, where an object goes from one “state” (a particular amount of energy, temperature, and entropy) to another “state” by adding or subtracting some energy to the object. Ludwig Boltzmann pioneered this work a century ago and derived the formula

S = k ln W.

where S is the entropy, k is Boltzmann's constant, and ln W is the natural logarithm of the measure of the probabalistic “state” of the system, W, usually expressed as either a probability or statistical weight. In other words, W is the likelihood that the current situation is by chance.

Twenty years ago I was able to show from this definition of entropy that a totalitarian economic system which left little or no degrees of freedom to individuals (like Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward, Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto, and George Orwell's 1984, for example) would collapse under its own weight with a maximum likelihood of 35% destruction of the system. Such a system is, of course, said to be “degenerate” in both physics and the Bible (Jer. 2:21).

At that time I observed that gravity has zero entropy and that rotation and orbits are also close to zero entropy. Truth, too, has zero entropy. The cosmic background radiation has the most entropy per unit energy, about 10,000. Freeman Dyson, in a 1970 paper in Scientific American stated that “Entropy measures the degree of disorder associated with the energy. Energy must always flow in such a direction that the entropy increases.”

Now here's the connection. Information is needed to direct the energy or to transform energy. Shannon12 concluded that knowledge about a particular question can be represented by the assignment of a certain probability (P) to the various conceivable answers to the question Q. Complete knowledge implies that P=0 to all conceivable answers save the right one, which has P=1. The expression for the entropy S of a question Q given knowledge X [written as S(Q|X)] in terms of the probabilites P1, P2, P3,...Pn is:

S(Q|X) = -K (P1 ln P1 + P2 ln P2 + ... + Pn ln Pn)

which I'll rewrite as:

S(Q|X) = -K Si Pi ln Pi, i=1, 2, ..., n.

Here K is an arbitrary scale factor, not necessarily Boltzmann's constant but likely related to it. K has the units of entropy.

Shannon relates the information in a message to entropy. The message is an input to S(Q|X) such that it goes to another state S(Q|X') after the message. If the message is information, that is, it it's useful, timely and relevant, decreasing one or more of the Pi's, then the information I is:

I = dS = S(Q|X) - S(Q|X').

Now if one of the Pi's equals 1 and all the other Pi's = 0, then S=0. That is, we have the truth. S is a maximum if all the Pi's have the same value. This is total uncertainty, completely devoid of the truth.

This entropy is really the same thing as thermodynamic entropy. The relationship is evident in the concept of essergy which is a measure of the ability to do work (”potential work”). Essergy is related to the product of entropy times temperature (ST) or, in Shannon's notation, information times temperature (IT).

Essergy = I T = E + PV - TS - S ui Ni, (i = 1, 2, ..., n).

Here ui is the chemical potential of chemical i, Ni is the number of moles of chemical i, P = pressure, and V = volume. In terms of Boltzmann's constant, k, Shannon's measure of essergy breaks down about as follows:

If I 100k ~1.4x10-14gm-cm2sec-2K-1, it's information processing.
If I > 100k, it's work and power.

You'll note that all of a sudden, the E=(3/2)kT relationship is now E=NkT where N is a scale factor depending on the amount of work which could be extracted from the system. Since the media is flooding us with superstitions half-truths and down-right lies, people no longer have enough information to weigh the Pi's and are reaching the state of maximum entropy. Such a state leads to death; usually by violent revolution. One of its attributes is that people become catatonic, they become incapable of action because they don't know what to do, like an animal frozen by fear in the on-coming headlights of a car. That's the effect I've noticed and related into entropic terms. This is not in God's system but in the God-forsaken world-system. In Deu. 31:16 God says that we can forsake him and in Psalm 27:9 we find that he can forsake men. He has promised, however, not to forsake the Bible believer in Christ. So I see a connection between gravity and the grave, and right now entropy or the potential to do work seems to be the key to that connection.

Perhaps the most graphic illustration of the amount of disinformation in the world today is the proliferation of new bible versions. Gail Riplinger, the author of New Age Bible Versions (see back cover), tells of an observation she made while a professor at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio.13 During the ten years she taught there, she witnessed to many young ladies, Christian and non-christian alike. She observed that those young women who spent time each day with a King James Bible would have little to no trouble coping with grades, course pressures, or problems with men while those who spent the time with a New King James, NIV or NASV would have a devil of a time with such problems. At that time she did not know that the King James Bible is the inerrant, preserved word of God in the English language, but it led her to pray that the Lord would grant her time to do a word-for-word collation of the King James and the new versions. In answer to her prayer the Lord confined her to bed for six years with a painful connective tissue disorder. So she did get to do the collation which is summarized in her book. Here the true answer, the King James Bible, has been obscured by literally hundreds of other “answers.” For those of us who know that, the entropy of this question is zero. For the rest who think all 450 versions alike, the change in entropy (confusion) is an absolute maximum I=4.6. This is very much larger than the cut-off between information and work presented above and which has the value 1.4x10-14gm-cm2sec-2K-1. In other words, it will take a lot of work to untangle the confusion. For comparison, if there were only two versions to choose from, the change in entropy I=0.7.

The above numbers are very difficult to interpret. The truth is, that one is only in the state of confusion between Bible versions if one assumes that God did not preserve his words so that there is no way to tell them apart. That is a lie, and so we see that the introduction of the lie has increased the entropy in the world by 4.6. The number may not look so big, but when I compute the amount of work (essergy) needed to untangle the truth, the amount has quadrillions of digits in it (1016 digits, a one followed by a thousand trillion zeroes). That's why the truth can only be known by grace! Clearly, all versions are not equal! Still, one can understand why most Christians are in a catatonic state when it comes to the truth: they don't know where the truth (the Holy Bible) is, and so don't know what to believe and what to teach (Amos 8:11).

Entropy and Gravity

From the definition of essergy as the potential to do work, we can relate entropy to gravity. The concept which connects the two is called potential energy and it is defined as the ability to do work. For example, when water drops over a cliff, we can extract work from that via a water wheel. The formula for gravitational potential energy of the earth, V is:

V = -G M / R

where G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the earth, and R is the earth's radius. Now we make a very dubious assumption.

Any change in the potential energy of the earth will go as

dV = -G( dM/R - MdR/R2) = GMdR/R2 - GdM/R.

We now have to decide whether or not the mass of the earth changes or its size, or both. The latter case is insoluable without experimental measurements. Since the energy of the system increases with entropy, let's assume through the famous E=mc2 formula that the mass changes but that the size does not change. Furthermore, assume that all else remains constant except the amount of entropy. In other words, we keep temperature and chemical energy and thermodynamic energy the same, then we have

T I = T DS = - GdM/R.

This means that as the entropy increases, the effective mass of the earth decreases. Potentially, the size of the earth could also increase, which could possibly relate to the increased wave heights observed in the North Atlantic.


There is no hard and fast conclusion which can be drawn from this analysis beyond that the increase of entropy, which increases by work and untruth, can change the gravitational potential. This is a very preliminary approach and may have errors in it. For example, I did not convert the entropy units to entropy per unit energy, which is the usual way to compare such systems. All that this demonstrates is that there seems indeed to be a relationship between the consequences of sin and the natural realm, and that when sin abounds, the so-called natural world responds violently. This relationship appears to have been part and parcel of the creation of God.


Bouws, E., et al, 1996. “The Increasing Wave Height in the North Atlantic Ocean,” American Meteorological Society Bulletin, 77:2275.

2 When the waves of death compassed me, the floods of ungodly men made me afraid.

3 And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?

4 Thy wrath lieth hard upon me, and thou hast afflicted me with all thy waves. Selah.

5 O that thou hadst hearkened to my commandments! then had thy peace been as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea.

6 The sea is come up upon Babylon: she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof. … Because the LORD hath spoiled Babylon, and destroyed out of her the great voice; when her waves do roar like great waters, a noise of their voice is uttered.

7 And he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and shall smite the waves in the sea, and all the deeps of the river shall dry up: and the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away.

8 ”Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.” Jude ties together all of the major themes: waves, planets (wandering stars), unrighteousness, saboteurs in the Church, etc.

9 In the summer of 1997 I taught a Sunday school class on the history of the Bible. In the course of that I read some of the ancient “church fathers” up through Eusebius. Not one of them believed that only the original autographs were inspired. Some even questioned the value of the “original language manuscripts.” All but the Greek Orthodox (Byzantines) accepted the Old Latin translation of the Bible as the Holy Bible to the point that many were willing to and some did die for it rather than surrender it. For the Bible's view see Psalm 12:6-7 in the A.V.

10 I use the word world in its technical sense where it is defined as the order of man: his governments, religions, superstitions, etc. Never will I use the word as a synonym for earth.

11 That is, a molecule is free to move in any of the three directions or dimensions: up or down, left or right, and forward or backwards. That's whence the 3. With each collision between atoms or molecules, on average half of the impact energy goes into spin and the other half into recoil or temperature, and that's whence the 1/2. Thus 3/2.

12 Shannon, 1948. Bell System Tech. J., vol. 27, p. 379, 623.

13 The testimony may be found in the Q&A Session tape of the 2-tape video set entitled Reserach: King James Bible Perfection or NIV NKJV NASV Perversion, (Ararat VA: AV Publications Corp).

Updated on 11 February 2005 by GDB